Chion Principle: 

Added Value

Materialisation vs dematerialisation (what characteristics lead to one over the other)

Materialisation: materialisation sound indices – how much material put into the visual image): an abundance (high MSI)

dematerialisation: the sound is off, metaphorically why it is silent or blurted out, mere over the image): scarci

Synchresis (Sound design principle: as long as we hear is in perfect alignment, gesture of the sound to exaggerate and more weight) meaningful authentic vs decorative

Empathetic (happy) vs unempathetic (disturb) music (what and how the audience’s respond expected to be)

“It is unempathetic because it does not match, it is perfectly aligned with the”

Materialising Sound Indices: 

the “materialise”or “dematerialise” the sound of moving images (by adding materiality to the objects and depth to the diegesis.

can lead to a perception of the characters and story as ethereal, abstract and fluid

e.g a boy will have less sound indices than a man when stepping on wood

it is the weight

the concrete materiality of sound production in film space (sound details that cause us to feel the material conditions of sounds source and refer to the concrete process of sound’s production

the substance causing the sound

the way the sound is produced (by friction?)

According to Chion, MSI are the details in sound that supply information about its concrete materiality and production and which cause us to “feel” the material conditions of the sound’s source.

The number of MSI’s provided by a sound often depends on the quality of the sound recording. For example, a high-quality sound recording carries a higher number of MSI’s compared to dull sound recordings.


a visual to make it feel more authentic

may have more defined or have higher frequencies. This makes the audio-visual relationship feel more real.


in some cases, there may be no sound effects at all

could be a lower quality recording, which sounds muffled or smeared

can result in an ethereal, abstract, fluid or dreamlike scene

Empathetic Sound: 

is sound (music or sound effects) whose mood matches the mood of the present action or scene.

e.g a sad song is played during a depressing scene

this type of sound can enhance the tone of the scene. It spices up the character’s inner feeling, creating more depth and meaning to the scene.

Unempathetic Sound: 

acts the opposite way, sound that contrast and exhibit of the scene

e.g a happy song is played during a depressing scene

usually this type of sound works in horror films, it enhance a sense of tragic apathy and insignificance as when a radio continues to play a happy tune when a character dies as if nothing has happened.

Audiovisual (sound and visual compotent):

using both sight and sound, typically in the form of images and reorded speech or music

sfthe presenter provides the audio by speaking, and supplements it with a series of images projected onto a screen, either from a slide projector or from a computer concted to a projector using presentation software

web streaming, video conferecning, live broadcast

speakers, LED dance flloors,  projector.

Audionarrative inversion: 

method of obscuring the content of a transmission

used in public service radio, cordless telephones

audionarrative inversion:

– method of obscuring the content of a transmission

used in public service radio, cordless telephones


dialogue that are recorded in loops, re-perform each line to match the wording and lip movements. Looping involved recording an actor who spoke lines in sync to “loops” of the image to match.

Emotional Realism: 

over the physical of the scene. The soundtrack reflects the mood of the story and the characters’ feelings

a sense of tension, like almost crushed by the car. The sound of the screeching of the car can influence emotionally.

Internal Logic: out of the situation (feeling sad after someone died, the sound dies by the characters; feelings, perceptions or behaviours)

External logic: discontinuity as non diegetic interventions (sudden changes of tempo, breaks)

Circumflex model of emotion 

put in the quadrant

arousel vs valence

how pitch, rhythm, tempo, timber affect emotion?

Vertical axis – arousal (incremental)

Horizontal axis – valence (binary – negative to positive)


Diegetic vs non diegetic

diegetic: the world of film

non-diegetic: outside the world of film (score)


Difference between Score vs sound design 

score: the musical background sound (score to synchronise group emotions, to act as a narrative guide throughout the journey. Music can change perspective, emotion, perception of time)

Huron’s misattribution: mindful

physical, structural, psychological uses of music

anchorage – meaning :wards off the terror of uncertain signs  – we are terrified that are not that clear (e.g Darth Vader scene) – horror can play messy relationships) – unempathetic (feels like fitting in but cannot)

suture – structure: smooths out – or over – the mechanics of the film’s construction) – more cohesive

The roles of agendas of the score: (score driving emotional perception)

to clarify or express the idea (anchorage)

to describe or generate emotion (anchorage)

to articulate/disguise structure (suture)

accelerate or decelerate pace (structure)

delineate gore /project a tone

confer confident

simply engage/motivate an audience

it feels like it is telling the story (we are being told something)

Local vs Global considerations:

local: what a scene needs)

Global: what the film needs)

Earned Rights considerations:

you need to make the audience feel something first to the situation or problem before putting the score or sound designs

If you put the score or sound designs first, its gonna be any helps.

Sound Design Breakdown: (soundtracks)

Atmosphere (ambience): the sound of restaurant, wind effect (noises of the environment

Foley: post production sound effect and are laid manually

FX: sound like sci fi (lightsaber, can be edited)

dialogue: the speech of the characters (if the audience cannot hear, there will be no content, make sure the communication is good)


Herzfeld: humour through dynamic range, constructive valence, incongruity, spatiotemporal disjunct

Pixar: humour by thwarting pops/dramatic trajectories


The triangle: good fast cheap

Costs and benefits of vocational choices: creative freedom/satisfaction vs money